Ethics should be a consideration in every aspect of research, from project planning, data collection and analysis to dissemination.
The below resources should be utilised in conjunction with the advice of your institution’s Research Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board and any relevant legislation applicable in your jurisdiction (e.g. GDPR).
If you have an appropriate contribution for addition to this page, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Internet Research: Ethical Guidelines 3.0 (2019)Visit
Association of Internet Researchers
Ethics Graphic (2016)Visit
Association of Internet Researchers
Ethical Decision-making and Internet Research 2.0 (2012)Visit
Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee from the Association of Internet Researchers
Ethics Guidelines for Internet-Mediated Research (2021)FeaturedVisit
British Psychological Society
A Guide to Internet Research Ethics (2018/2019)Visit
Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee
Journal Articles and Reports
RESOLVE Network Research Training and Curriculum InitiativeVisit
Access multiple reports containing reflections on ethics issues, including J.M. Berger's 'Researching Violent Extremism: The State of Play,' which includes sections on 'Ethical Challenges: Designations, Biases, and Disclosures' and 'Practical Challenges: Safety and Access' (pp.'s 6-11), and Joe Whittaker's 'Building Secondary Source Databases on Violent Extremism: Reflections andSuggestions,' which includes a section on 'Ethical Considerations' (pp.'s 14-16).
Elizabeth Buchanan. 2017. ‘Considering the Ethics of Big Data Research: A Case of Twitter and ISIS/ISIL.’ PloS One 12(12).FeaturedVisit
This brief review reflects on the ethics of big data research methodologies, and how novel methods complicate long-standing principles of research ethics; specifically, the concept of the 'data subject' as a corollary, or replacement, of 'human subject' is considered.
Ted Reynolds. 2012. 'Ethical and Legal Issues Surrounding Academic Research into Online Radicalisation: A UK Experience.' Critical Studies on Terrorism 5(3): 499 - 513.Visit
This article pays particular attention to the UK Terrorism Acts.
Reconciling Impact and Ethics: An Ethnography of Research in Violent Online Political Extremism (2018)Visit
Open access VOX-Pol report authored by Dounia Mahlouly (SOAS). This study highlights some of the ethical dilemmas faced by the academic community tasked with developing new methodological tools and conceptual frameworks for the study of violent online political extremism.
Ethics is Method, Method is Ethics: What Terrorism Researchers Should KnowVisit
VOX-Pol Blog post (Sept. 2018) authored by Carol Winkler (Georgia State University).
How GDPR Changes the Rules for ResearchFeaturedVisit
VOX-Pol Blog post (May. 2018) authored by Gabe Maldoff, a privacy and data protection lawyer at Bird & Bird LLP in London.
The Ethics of Academia-Counterterrorism Police CollaborationVisit
VOX-Pol Blog post (Sept. 2018) authored by Mike Edwards (University of South Wales).
The Ethics of Engaging Former Extremists to Counter Violent Extremism OnlineVisit
VOX-Pol Blog post (Sept. 2010) authored by Brad Galloway (University of Fraser Valley) and originally posted on Moonshot CVE.
Spiders and Crawlers and Scrapers, Oh My! The Law and Ethics of Researchers Violating Terms of ServiceVisit
An article on Medium (April 2019) by Casey Fiesler (CU Boulder).
Web Scraping Social Media: Legitimate Research or a Breach of Contract?Visit
Part one of a PRIF Blog series by Sebastian Golla and Denise Müller, covering the legal issues around web scraping.
Web Scraping Social Media: Pitfalls of Copyright and Data Protection LawVisit
Part two of a PRIF Blog series by Sebastian Golla und Denise Müller, covering the specific legal issues around Copyright and Data Protection.